Flag of Egypt
|Population (In Millions)||82.54|
|Human Development Index||113/169|
|Gross Domestic Product (In USD Billions - World Bank)||229.53|
|Global Peace Index||73/153|
|Happy Planet Index||12/143|
|Social Institutions and Gender Index||65/86|
|Environmental Performance Index||68/163|
|Child Mortality Rate||18|
|More information on variables|
Egyptian land covers 1001450 km², bordering with Israel for 266km, Libya for 1115km and Sudan for 1273km. Egypt has a population of 82,079,636, making it the world’s 15th largest population. Egypt’s capital city, Cairo, has a population of 10.902 million. 22% of the total population live below the national poverty line, which has increased from 19.6% in 2005.
Main Progress Initiatives
Environmental Quality International (EQI) was founded in Egypt in 1981 as a private partnership engaged in the delivery of environmental consulting services. EQI brings the expertise of social scientists and environmental, management, finance and communication specialists. Its work covers multiple areas of development, such as governance and enterprise development, microfinance, ecotourism, and agriculture. It seeks to design and implement comprehensive strategies to deal with environmental challenges. Today, EQI is a full-service company with over 150 employees who work to address development needs across different sectors.
The Siwa Sustainable Development Initiative is a development project launched by the private firm EQI (Environment Quality International) in the oasis at Siwa, in the Matrouh region of Egypt. The project aims to demonstrate that the private sector can make profitable developments while preserving the local community and environment, which will ensure long-term sustainability.
Multidimensional Poverty Index
The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for Egypt is 0.024. The MPI is an international measure of acute poverty covering 109 countries. The MPI reflects the multiple deprivations that poor people face at the same time in three dimensions: health, education and living standards. The MPI reflects both the incidence or headcount ratio (H) of poverty – the proportion of the population that is multidimensionally poor – and the average intensity (A) of their poverty – the average proportion of indicators in which poor people are deprived. More information on the MPI in Egypt is available here.
UNDP Human Development Report Trends - 2011
The Human Development Index is a composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development- a long healthy life, knowledge, and a decent standard of living; intended to capture the essential dimensions of the quality of human life or human development. According to the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report, Egypt was ranked 113rd out of 187 countries in the world.
Human Development Index: Trends 1980 - present
With an HDI of 0.644 in 2010, Egypt's score is broken down as follows:
Health: 0.840 (life expectancy at birth of 73.2 years)
Education: 0.560 (mean years of schooling, 6.4)
Income: 0.568 (GNI per capita 2008 PPP US$ 5,269) 
Egypt Human Development Report 2010 key findings
Between 1980 and 2010 Egypt’s HDI rose by 1.5% annually from 0.406 to 0.644; it ranks 113rd of 187 countries on the 2011 HDI. Egypt is above the regional average for the Arab states. Nine key messages from the Egypt Human Development Report 2010 are:
1. Overcoming Education System Failure
2. Breaking the cycle of poverty
3. Job creation
4. Focus on culture
5. Eliminating gender discrimination
6. Youth well-being
7. Youth and governance
8. Youth and migration
9. Breaking the asset constraint
See full details of Egypt’s Human Development Report
Progress and the Arab Spring
The Arab Spring - a term that was inspired by Europe’s le Printemps des peuples or le Printemps des révolutions - refers to the wave of protests that started in Tunisia in December 2010 and expanded to other North-African and Middle-Eastern countries. Although the nature of the uprisings has varied from protests to revolution, all nations involved in the Spring are reacting to degrading socio-economic and political conditions in the MENA region.
Key nations involved in the Arab Spring include:
- Tunisia: starting from December 17th, 2010.
- Egypt: starting from January 25th, 2011.
- Yemen: starting from January 26th, 2011.
- Libya: starting from February 17th, 2011.
- Syria: starting from March 15th, 2011.
Protests of smaller sizes having media coverage also took place in Morocco, Algeria, Jordan, Bahrain, Oman & Kuwait. Many of the countries involved in the Arab Spring showed a steady increase in GDP over the last five to ten years while their well-being indices were decreasing.
With this respect, the Arab Human Development Report (2009) also highlights how the widespread absence of human security in Arab countries undermines people’s options. The report argues that security in the Arab countries is often threatened by unjust political, social, and economic structures; by competition for power and resources among fragmented social groups. 
See the 2009 Arab Human Development Report here.
For each nation involved in the Arab Spring, Wikiprogress is showcasing a number of key indices, inspired by the OECD Better Life Initiative – Compendium of Well-Being Indicators, to reflect a variety of dimensions of progress.
This Compendium represents one of the first attempts to respond to the demand for comparative information on the conditions of people's lives in developed market economies. Previous contributions in this field have focused on the conditions of poorer countries and on a more narrow range of dimensions (e.g. Human Development Index).
Material living conditions
Jobs and earnings
According to the World Bank Database, Egypt has a varied history in unemployment measured by total percentage of the labour force. Unemployment went from 9.0% in 2006, to 8.1% in 2009, increasing from 9.0% in 2000 to 11.2% in 2005, then plummeting to 8.7% in 2008 and rising again to 9.4% in 2009.
Quality of life
The life expectancy rate in Egypt between 2005 and 2009 has been a consistent 70 years. Egypt has a pluralistic and disjointed health system with numerous sources of financing, financing agents, and providers. Total expenditure on health per capita is Intl $282, as estimated by the World Health Organisation in 2009. Egypt spends less of its GDP on health than most other countries in the region.
In 2009, 88% of the population had access to local health services, for the same year in urban areas 90%.
According to the OECD African Economic Outlook 2010, Egypt is among the lowest 9 countries in the world for literacy, with data from 2005 showing only 40.8% of the population are able to read and write.
The literacy rate should increase over the new few years as school enrolment has been steadily increasing. Between 2003- 2004 90.9% of children were in primary or secondary education, compared with on 42% in 1960.
Over 85% of children are being education in state schools, 8.1% at Al-Azhar Koranic schools and 6.1% in private schools. The number of university students has increased from 1.6million in 2001 to 2 million in 2006.
Egypt has the fasted growing media market of all nations in the MENA region. The Arab Spring revolutions have seen social media become a major disruptive force, as seen by the use of Facebook in anti-government protests. The top social media sites in Egypt are Facebook, Twitter, Masrawy, Youm7, Eqla3 and Ikhwanbook.
The Arab Media Influence Report 2011 found that social media was highly influential in the Egyptian revolution as it bridged the gap between the social classes and for the first time created a large untied antigovernment front with members with all levels of socio-economic status. The freedom to express on social media was shown through the rise of the use of political terms, especially when comparing data between 2010 and 2011.
Civic Engagement and Governance
The 2011 Global Peace Index score showed a steep decline in peacefulness in Egypt, with the score dropping by the third-largest margin in the region, dropping 85 places to be ranked 73rd.
The protests in Tahrir Square dramatically impacted the nations GPI score, with three qualitative GPI measures of internal conflict, violent crime and political stability increasing significantly.
The forced resignation of former president Hosni Mubarak on the 11th of February 2011 marked a turning point in modern history not just for Egypt, but for social movements around the world. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, which has assumed for the duration of the transitional process in the lead up to the elections and instillation of the civilian administration.
Happiness in Egypt
This is an overview of findings on Happiness in Egypt.The available findings are presented in the latest ‘Nation Report’ on Egypt. This report is ordered by type of happiness questions and within these types by year. This ordering is to facilitate the assessment of progress, comparison over time being most fruitful using the same questions.
The report presents means and standard deviations, both on the original scale range and transformed to a common range 0-10. The means inform about the level of happiness in the country and the standard deviations about inequality of happiness.
Links provide more detail about the precise text of the question, the full distribution of responses and technical details of the survey. The report is continuously updated.
- Arab Spring
- Happiness in Egypt
- Human Development Index
- Human Development Report 2010
- Human Development Report 2010 - Media Review
- The Global Peace Index 2010
- Challenges to Human Security in the Arab Countries 2009, UNDP Regional Report, 2009
- Creating Opportunities for Future Generations 2002 UNDP, Regional Report, 2002
- ↑ GlObserver country profile on Egypt, retrieved 08.08.2011 http://www.globserver.com/en/egypt
- ↑ CIA World Fact Book, data from July 2011, retrieved 08.08.2011 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html
- ↑ CIA World Fact Book, data from 2010, retrieved 08.08.2011 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html
- ↑ World Bank data by country: Egypt, 2008 http://data.worldbank.org/country/egypt-arab-republic
- ↑ United Nations Development Programme. International Human Development Indicators - UNDP. 2010.http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/EGY.html. (accessed January 16th, 2011).
- ↑ UNDP, International Human Development Indicators, Egypt, Human Development Index data, retrieved 16.01.2012
- ↑ Clifton J. and Morales L. (2011), Egyptians', Tunisians' Wellbeing Plummets Despite GDP Gains: Traditional economic indicators paint an incomplete picture of life in these countries, The Gallup Centre, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Full article here
- ↑ UNDP (2009), Arab Human Development Reprot: Challenges to Human Security in the Arab Countries, New York, USA. Full report available here]
- ↑ The OECD Better Life Initiative: Compendium of OECD Better Life Initiatives (2011), OECD, Paris, France. Full report here
- ↑ CIA World Factbook Country Profile Egypt 2010 and 2009, retrieved 25.08.2011 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html
- ↑ CIA World Factbook GDP per capita country comparison 2010, retrieved 25.08.2011 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2004rank.html?countryName=Egypt&countryCode=eg®ionCode=afr&rank=137#eg
- ↑ World Bank Database of Indicators, Egypt country profile, unemployment total percentage of toal labour force
- ↑ World Bank Development Indicators, Egypt, life expectancy at birth total years http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN/countries/EG?display=graph
- ↑ Egypt NHA report, 2007-2008, World Health Organisations
- ↑ World Health Organisation, Country Profile Egypt http://www.who.int/countries/egy/en/
- ↑ Egypt NHA report, 2007-2008, World Health Organisations
- ↑ Egypt, Country profile, World Health Organisation
- ↑ [Arab Media Influence Report 2011, News Group, March 2011 Arab Media Influence Report 2011], News Group, March 2011
- ↑ Arab Media Influence Report 2011, News Group, March 2011